Comprehension Of Evolution
This is not another attempt to DEFINE evolution.
This is an attempt to COMPREHEND evolution. An attempt to comprehend evolution with, again, my favorite scientific approach, with common sense.
Common sense leads me to start my this attempt with the presently conjectured start-state of the evolution of all evolutions, with singularity, and to then ask what is next. Should we now seek Evolution's Potential? Do we next need a conjectured end-state?
Is evolution a process that arrives at an end-state? How will cosmic expansion end?
We cannot even conjecture…
Will it end with a stable steady state, a balance between the ever self-diluting force that accelerates the motion of galaxies clusters and the since-singularity tensioned space-distance cosmos matrix? Or will it end with a collapse, with a return impansion towards singularity, that will then again …? And how may it evolve towards its end state?…
Is this unknowability what constitutes the stochastic nature of evolution?
Yet it is observable that every temporary phase of evolution is a start-state of further evolution.
And it is observable that all objects and processes and natural laws in the universe, are – since singularity – products of evolution and are themselves continuously further evolving. Everything in the cosmos is fractal, rehappens on many scales, and is continuously evolving. Each and every system in the universe continuously evolves within the total universal evolution and all the systems' evolutions are intertwined.
And it is also observable that all evolutions are fueled by culture, culture being the totality of ways of the system's dealing (reaction to, manipulation of, exploitation of) with its environment.
PS: Present state (March 2008) of the stock market appears to point at the relationship between stocks and stochastic… DH
Feb 12 2008
Life Evolution Within Cosmic Evolution
A. The Cosmic Drive and Purpose Behind The Drive and Purpose Of Life
(From chapter III of "Life, Tomorrow's Comprehension" )
(1) Again, Earth Life Is A Real Virtual Affair; it pops in and out of existence from its matrix, which is the energy constrained in Earth's biosphere. The totality of life in Earth's biosphere (the outermost part of the planet's shell, including air, land, surface rocks and water, within which life occurs, and which biotic processes in turn alter or transform. Wikipedia.) is a temporary grand store of constrained energy, and all living organisms are elaborate temporary energy storage containers and all genes-genomes are "Life quanta" organisms, carriers of "Life photons".
(2) Singularity and D-Infinity (max expansion/ cosmic energy dilution) are the two cosmic stable states. Their in-between is a metastable state. This corresponds to commonsense observation: the denser the compacting goal of material the more energy is required, and vice versa the more thorough the disintegration of material the higher the amount of energy released. It seems that E=mC^2 is a specific case of the cosmic (and universal) process
where D is the Distance from Big Bang point and the sum is of all spatial values of D from D=0 to D=selected value.
[BTW, (Nov 9 2006), following Newton (1) gravity is decreased when mass is decreased and (2) acceleration of a body is given by dividing the force acting upon it by its mass. By plain common sense the combination of those two 'laws' may explain the accelerating cosmic expansion of galaxy clusters, based on the above E/ m/ D suggested relationship.]
(3) Life, and every and all objects and processes including natural laws, are – since their non-existence at singularity – products of evolution and are continuously further evolving. Everything in the cosmos is fractal, rehappens on many scales, and is continuously evolving. Each and every system in the universe continuously evolves within the total universal evolution and all the systems' evolutions are intertwined. Ergo (Big-Bang's) energy is the base element of everything in the universe and individual genes are the base elements of Life. Cosmic evolution is evolution of energy, and within it Life's evolution is the evolution of the genes/energy-quanta carriers.
(4) At the beginning was the energy singularity. At the end will be near zero mass and an infinite dispersion of the beginning energy. In-between, the universe undergoes continuous evolution, consisting of myriad energy-to-energy and energy-to-mass-to-energy transformations. The cosmos evolution process comprises, though, phenomena of forms of temporary energy storages, energy dispersion constraints. Examples of such temporary pockets are black holes of all sizes, and all forms of biospheres wherever they are.
The temporary constrained energy pockets are far-removed versions, up-fractionally evolved, scattered cosmic fragmants of singularity-akin energy storages. Energy stored in the temporary constrained energy pockets resists dispersion; we do not yet comprehend why. However, we do comprehend that we, all Earth life, are real virtual constrained energy pockets formed by Earth's biosphere energy store in the process of enhencing Earth's biosphere energy content and for resisting its dispersion by maintaining it bio as long as possible.
B. Life Evolution Within The Cosmic Evolution
All cosmic objects, processes and (natural) laws, not having been in existence at singularity, are products of evolution and are further evolving.
Life system(s) is a sub-system of energy. The evolution of Life(s) system(s) differs from the evolution of non-living system(s) in Design and Randomness.
Non-living systems evolve in accordance with laws that evolve during the systems' evolution, affected and selected randomly by the Ambience. This route of evolution, even if it 'enables' temporary diversions from the inavoidable final end state of the cosmos, has a fixed overall direction and a fixed end state.
Whereas Life system(s) evolve with Design, with the design and culture selected by the evolution of Life's prime organisms, the genes-genome, for surviving as long as possible, for lengthening as much as possible the period of constrainig their planet's biosphere energy, even if in a hopeless eventual losing struggle to maintain their planet bio.
Organisms Evolve By Design
for maintaining Earth's biosphere
Feb 12 2008
Again, It's The Living Genes-Genome, Man.
They are the alleged Evolution, not a Designer.
Just look at the red blood cells …
A. Good general background info re blood cells
B. I like this source of info on blood cells despite its presentor
" Erythrocytes (also known as red blood cells) are the most common of the formed elements. Adult humans have approximately 2-3 x 10^13 red blood cells at any given time (see Wikipedia, n
.d.). These cells provide oxygen to tissues, and assist in the disposal of carbon dioxide. In humans, red blood cells are devoid of nuclei (i.e., they are anucleated) and intracellular organelles, while birds, amphibians, and other animals have red blood cells that are nucleated. This key difference should not be overlooked in light of our alleged evolutionary origins. All cells require a nucleus for replication and maturation. Even red blood cells have a nucleus during their very early stages of development. However, in humans, the production of red blood cells occurs in the bone marrow, and thus we do not normally see these nucleated cells in the circulation (although they occasionally are found in newborns). An obvious question is: How did humans “evolve” cells that would mature without a nucleus? And furthermore, why would nature select for this? By losing their nuclei, these cells are unable to replicate like other cells within the body. The body is dependent on pluripotent stem cells within bone marrow for future erythrocyte production. With a lifespan of only 120 days and no nuclei, they must be constantly produced in order to carry oxygen throughout the body. Each second about 2.5 million new erythrocytes are produced or about 200 billion each day (see “Cardiovascular System,” 2004)! Some animals produce these cells intravascularly (i.e., in the blood stream), whereas humans and other animals produce them extravascularly (in the bone marrow or other hematopoietic tissue).
Additionally, this loss of cellular organelles means that these cells are unable to produce energy, and thus, they must get energy from anaerobic respiration. Anaerobic respiration in red blood cells is a complex cascade of events that puts even more impossible explanatory demands on evolutionists.
Red blood cells are formed by a process known as erythropiesis. It takes approximately seven days for these cells to develop, and then they are released into the blood stream. Old red blood cells are “engulfed by phagocytes, destroyed and their materials are released in the blood. The main sites of destruction are the liver and spleen” (see Wikipedia, n.d.). During their lifetime these specialized cells travel over 100 miles, are buffeted at high velocities during their passage through the heart, and have to negotiate tiny capillaries…. As they age, subtle structural changes occur which render them identifiable to scavenger cells in the spleen and elsewhere, and they end their days being devoured and digested by these predators (Blakemore and Jennett, 2001, p. 85).
However, this process must be orchestrated or else the individual will suffer from having too many or insufficient numbers of red blood cells in the blood stream. Consider the fate of an individual unable to break-down aged red blood cells, or someone who is unable to produce replacements. How did this feed-back mechanism arise? Blakemore and Jennett observed:
Their rate of production is beautifully adapted to this function. It is regulated by a hormone called erythropoietin, produced in the kidney in the adult and in the liver in the fetus. Close to the gene that regulates erythropoietin production are regions of DNA that sense oxygen tension; when this falls, erythropoietin synthesis is stimulated, and more red cells are produced in the bone marrow. When adequate oxygenation of tissues is achieved, erythropoietin production is reduced. By this biological feedback loop the body is able to respond to varying oxygen demands by modifying the rate of red cell production (2001, p. 85, emp. added).
This system is also irreducibly complex. All of the parts are necessary in order for the feedback mechanism to work properly. So how was this “beautifully adapted” feedback loop able to evolve in a series of evolutionary steps? The truth is that it could not!
As the red blood cell matures and is ready to leave the bone marrow, it expels its nucleus. The reason for anucleated red blood cells in humans is directly related to function—the unique shape and loss of nucleus provides added surface area through which gas can diffuse (Van de Graaff and Fox, 1989, p. 656; Blakemore and Jennett, p. 85). The anucleated biconcave shape increases surface area and allows the cell to remain flexible enough to squeeze through small capillaries. Even an anucleated red blood cell is larger (8µm) than capillaries (2-3µm). However, without the nucleus present, the red blood cell is flexible and able to fold over on itself. For how many “millions of years” was development limited as red blood cells slowly “evolved” the ability to shed their nucleus, develop anaerobic respiration for energy needs, and finally become flexible and able to fold into capillaries? The functional design of the anucleated red blood cell’s shape (a biconcave disc) can only be explained by the ultimate Designer.
In addition, red blood cells contain hemoglobin, which is responsible for carrying oxygen to every cell in the body. Hemoglobin is a complex protein that has two pairs of chains (referred to as alpha and beta) which bind to the red-pigmented molecule known as heme. As Blakemore and Jennett described: “In most mammals, adult hemoglobin (hemoglobin A) comprises two unlike pairs of chains of amino acids, or globin chains, called ? and ?, each of which is folded round one iron-containing heme molecule, to which oxygen can bind” (p. 85). This configuration allows hemoglobin to transport four molecules of oxygen. Given the added surface area from the anucleated biconcave disc, each cell would contain “about 280,000,000 molecules of hemoglobin” (see “Cardiovascular System,” 2004). What are the odds that this engineering accomplishment happened by random chance? Consider that an evolutionary origin of hemoglobin would require a minimum of 120 mutations to convert an alpha chain to a beta. At least 34 of those changes require changeovers in 2 or 3 nucleotides. Yet, if a single nucleotide change occurred through mutation, the result would ruin the blood and kill the organism. Simply put, evolution cannot explain the existence of hemoglobin molecules in the circulatory system of humans."
C. Further quote: "So how was this “beautifully adapted” feedback loop able to evolve in a series of evolutionary steps? The truth is that it could not!"
Now, this is the point! You unwittingly hit the nail square on its head!
Refer yourself again to "this process must be orchestrated", "regions of DNA", "the gene that regulates erythropoietin hormone production" and "biological feedback loop" AFTER carefully reading again the brief above quoted para…(from chapter II, "Life, Tomorrow's Comprehension", at
Does it reduce your (religious…) high self-esteem to realize and admit that your Designer is the living gene-genome complex that dwells in you?