Life is inherently a cooperative system
22 Nov, 2001 In biologicalEvolution forum.
From Nature, 22 November 2001 (Volume 414 No. 6862 pp. 379 – 472) Abstract of : "Evolution of cooperation without reciprocity", RICK L. RIOLO*, MICHAEL D. COHEN & ROBERT AXELROD:
" A long-standing problem in biological and social sciences is to understand the conditions required for the emergence and maintenance of cooperation in evolving populations. For many situations, kin selection is an adequate explanation, although kin-recognition may still be a problem. Explanations of cooperation between non-kin include continuing interactions that provide a shadow of the future (that is, the expectation of an ongoing relationship) that can sustain reciprocity, possibly supported by mechanisms to bias interactions such as embedding the agents in a two-dimensional space or other context-preserving networks. Another explanation, indirect reciprocity, applies when benevolence to one agent increases the chance of receiving help from others. Here we use computer simulations to show that cooperation can arise when agents donate to others who are sufficiently similar to themselves in some arbitrary characteristic. Such a characteristic, or 'tag', can be a marking, display, or other observable trait. Tag-based donation can lead to the emergence of cooperation among agents who have only rudimentary ability to detect environmental signals and, unlike models of direct or indirect reciprocity, no memory of past encounters is required."
Dov's remark :
Life is a fractal phenomenon because all its historical/chronological layers regardless of complexity are re-elaboration/re-expansion of its base elements. The earliest base elements that are exposed to our view NOW are in cells. Is it not OBVIOUS that the composition of a cell is a demonstration that LIFE IS INHERENTLY A COOPERATIVE SYSTEM and is it not therefore obvious that every living system regardless of complexity is a cooperative system? What scientific or other goal is served by overpainting a basic life phenomenon with voluminuous colored verbiage ?
end of Dov's remark.